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The aim of this post is to question such a conclusion. However, a closer look at the legal justifications offered, including those not mentioned in the post, reveals that, when justifying their intervention, all the states expressly referred to the objective of fighting against the Islamic State ISIL as the specific purpose of the consent given by the Iraqi authorities for their intervention. In other words, in the Iraqi case, the consent given by Iraq to intervene on its territory was generally considered only in relation to this specific purpose.

I announced my decision to respond to the request of the Iraqi authorities and to grant them the support necessary to fight against terrorism. As far as the position of the Dutch government is concerned, no clear statement was actually made on this issue by any member of this government during the discussions before the Parliament.

S/PRST/2013/15 安全保障理事会議長声明 「中東

Those discussions mainly concentrated on the question of extending the military operations to Syria. One must admit that parts of the summary of the UK legal position on the Iraqi case seem to be formulated in general terms. In addition, one must look to legal justifications given by the other states participating in the airstrikes in Iraq, which are not mentioned in the post, such as the justification contained in the resolution adopted by the Belgian House of Representatives on the subject.

Such legal justification again clearly links the request of the Iraqi government to the purpose of the requested intervention, i. These justifications — and more generally the Iraqi case — may hardly be interpreted as evidencing the opinio juris of those states that any intervention requested by the government of a state on its territory is normally legal under international law regardless of the purpose of this intervention.

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Given that ISIL is unanimously qualified as a terrorist organization and if one considers contrary to my view — infra 3 that the situation in Iraq amounted to a civil war at the time of the interventions, the Iraqi case could be invoked to support the position upheld by some scholars, such as T. Christakis and K. Bannelierwho argue for an exception to the prohibition on intervening in civil wars when intervention is only directed against universally recognized terrorist groups.

That having been said, one must be cautious when inferring the opinio juris of states from declarations of their political leaders, since one should not always expect that they give detailed and comprehensive legal explanations.

One must admit that the two UK documents quoted in the post, i. Such opinio juris must be sought through a range of declarations. Moreover, among several declarations, priority must be given to some of them and, for example, to those made before international fora, such as the UN Security Council.

The case of Mali clearly evidences the need for such a cautious approach. As the French Minister for Foreign Affairs evoked the right of collective self-defense in a press conference and before the French Senate to justify the intervention of France in Mali, some authors considered that the intervention was legally based on such a right — and that the opinio juris of France was that self-defence could be exercised in reaction to attacks by non-state actors.

However, the true opinio juris of France could not be inferred from those declarations. Priority had to be given to a more trustworthy verbal state practice, the letter sent by France to the President of the UN Security Council just after the intervention.

In this letter, the argument put forward by France was not collective self-defense but the request made by the Malian authorities to help Mali to repel the terrorist groups from the North of its territory. More particularly, very strong, clear and abundant statements rather than only a few declarations or other limited verbal state practice would have been needed in the Iraqi case to conclude that France and UK had recognized that it was not prohibited under international law to intervene in civil wars, as it is well-known that both states have long espoused a clear policy not to intervene in such situations here and [] BYILrespectively.

More fundamentally, the foreign interventions in Iraq should not be seen as interventions in a civil war in the sense of the IDI resolution.This Insight focuses on two aspects of this development. The first concerns the right of the government of Iraq, deprived of control over significant parts of Iraqi territory, to receive international assistance. The second concerns the reach of such assistance beyond the borders of Iraq, to Syria, in application of the right to collective self-defense.

When requesting U. Indeed, with the apparent collapse of the Iraqi regular forces over last summer, ISIL appeared close to be marching on the capital, Baghdad. Traditionally, a government can continue to represent a state until it has been entirely displaced by a popular uprising or armed opposition movement—until it has lost control over virtually all territory, including the Presidential Palace, as it were.

Up to that point, the government will claim the right to request and receive military assistance in its struggle to survive. Conversely, any military support given to the opposition movement would be considered as intervention.

However, recent practice has advanced upon this classical position, emphasizing legitimacy and representativeness of governance over traditional criteria favoring the established authorities. The routine response of the SC to protracted internal conflict leading to the loss of control over significant portions of territory and population is to deprive both sides, government and opposition, equally of external military support through an arms embargo.

The rationale is that a fundamental dissociation between the government and the governed has occurred, putting into question the right of the government to represent the state in relation to military assistance.

Instead of relying on the outcome of armed contestation, the authority to govern is to be reallocated to the true sovereign, the population, rather than the armed groups. Invariably this would then be pursued through a UN sponsored peace process, often including a constitutional review and fresh elections. While this advanced practice has been applied in a broad range of cases, there are exceptions. In fact, Syria is the most notorious instance where a blockage in the SC precluded this path.

The government in Damascus has been sustained by supplies of advanced weapons and ammunition, mainly supplied by the Russian Federation. The West has strongly criticized those supporting the regime of Bashar al-Assad.

But if it is unlawful or at least questionable to continue armed support for the Assad regime, why would it be lawful to do the same in relation to the Iraqi government? Both have lost control over large swathes of territory at the hands of armed movements. Indeed, both have lost control to ISIL, although other opposition groups have also captured other portions of Syria. The answer to this question is a qualitative one. Both Iraq and Syria have held recent elections.Telephone Fax Email contact securitycouncilreport.

Follow us:. It renewed its call on member states and relevant parties to integrate child protection provisions into all peace negotiations and ceasefire and peace agreements. Share or print this page. This was a presidential statement that stressed the need for a broad conflict prevention strategy that addresses the causes of conflict in order to protect children. This was a presidential statement adopted during the ministerial-level debate on "Maintenance of international peace and security: upholding the UN Charter".

This was a presidential statement on the role African youth can play in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and as a key aspect of the sustainability, inclusiveness and success of peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts on the continent. This was on developments in southern Yemen and efforts to resume comprehensive political negotiations.

This was a presidential statement reaffirming the fundamental importance of the four Geneva Conventions for the protection of those affected by armed conflict. Adopted under the agenda item "peace and security in Africa", this PRST referred to the Ebola outbreak in the DRC and the need to have international cooperation to address it.Man vs Elk. Coyote Country. GameKeepers of Mossy Oak. Pursuit Channel is an American television network that reaches, engages and entertains over 80 million outdoor enthusiasts.

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All rights reserved.Betting Tip Results Check how our tips have been performing below. Bet on Southampton vs Arsenal with Bet365For more football betting tips click here. Arsenal were in midweek Europa League action and Arsene Wenger made 11 changes for the occasions.

Striking ISIL: Aspects of the Law on the Use of Force

The Gunners stormed to a 6-0 win over BATE Borisov in their final Europa League Group H match. Arsenal will find out their opponents for the next round of the competition on Monday. Last weekend Arsenal suffered a 3-1 defeat at home to Manchester United, despite controlling the match and playing some brilliant attacking football at times.

United goalkeeper David de Gea made a record-equalling 14 saves in the match that saw Arsenal drop out of the top four. Charlie Austin continued his successful return from injury to equalise for the Saints. Southampton will take confidence from the fact that Arsenal have the worst away record of all the teams currently in the top nine. Shkodran Mustafi has been ruled out for Sunday. He has a slight chance of returning for the West Ham match three days later.

Wenger played with a back four for this first time this season in midweek, but Per Mertesacker is expected to partner Nacho Monreal and Laurent Koscielny in a back three against the Saints.

Theo Walcott and Calum Chambers are both available to face their former club, although their involvement in midweek makes appearance on Sunday less likely. Bet on Southampton vs Arsenal with Bet365All odds mentioned in this article are correct at the time of publishing (Thursday, December 7, 2017, 11:00 UK) and are subject to change.

West Ham United are without a win in their last eight league games, David Moyes has overseen three defeats in his four games in charge and are now 19th in the table. The Hammers have netted in defeats against Man City (2-1), Liverpool (1-4) and Spurs (2-3). Chelsea to win and Both Teams To Score. The Gunners have won three of their last four league matches and have won two of their last three on the road at Burnley (0-1) and Everton (2-5).

Southampton have lost three of their last five league games and continue to underwhelm under Mauricio Pellegrino. Everton have won three of their last five league games and are now 10th in the league under new boss Sam Allardyce. However, the Toffees remain a woeful side on the road and are without a league win in their last 15 away games. The Reds are unbeaten in their last 13 games at Anfield in all comps and are unbeaten in their last 13 league matches against Everton.

Liverpool to continue their push for the top four with a win against rivals Everton at Anfield. If you're looking to place a football accumulator, you'll definitely want to download the Football Coupon betting app in partnership with the Telegraph. You can check the best odds, sign up offers and get all of the latest tips in one simple-to-use app that can be accessed from the palm of your hand.

Commercial content notice: taking up one of these offers may result in a payment to The Telegraph. Suggested bets provided by Weekend Football.Something that was out of your control but played an important part in our unforgettable adventure was that the weather was sunny and warm everyday. We have experienced Iceland in all types of weather and it didn't stop us from enjoying ourselves immensely but the sunshine was an added bonus. Very quick to answer all of my questions with friendly informative replies Choices of varied accommodation was wonderful - loved the guesthouses.

Daily driving time was perfect between destinations- not too long or too short.

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Excellent planning - well done. We had a wonderful time. Our accommodations were very good and loved the wonderful breakfast every morning. We didn't feel rushed and people were so willing to help us and give us advice.

We greatly enjoyed the tour and have specifically recommended it to friends already (to see if they want to join us for another one. I've already recommended Nordic Visitor to two friends. My husband and I will be using Nordic Visitor when we return to Iceland in the future. I couldn't be more pleased with Nordic Visitor.

On both my tours with you Iceland and Norway the service was absolutely perfect. I have been travelling for 31 yrs and I have to say the service provided by Nordic Visitor (through Sindre) was exemplary!. And they went beyond perfect in Norway when I came down with pneumonia. I have never had such good service from a tour company before ever.

If not for the fact that I have been to all the other destinations on their list I would have no hesitation in booking with them again. Your company is terrific. Everything was thought of and documentation was great. We loved Iceland We were very impressed with the whole trip. The hotels were great. Travel documents all ready at the train station for us. Really enjoyed the trip and look forward to doing another one in the future.

I was just so impressed with everything. From the minute I made my first enquiry, till the point I was dropped off at the airport on my return, I felt that I was important to Nordic Visitor and nothing was too much trouble. Can I pay particular tribute to Karolina our tour guide. She is an absolute credit to your company. She really went out of her way to ensure we all had a wonderful holiday. She was professional, diligent, so hardworking and we all fell in love with her.

Everything about this trip was so easy and Thor did an amazing job at assisting with all aspects, adding and changing our schedule and providing us with all the information necessary for an amazing trip. Both my girlfriend and I were delighted with every aspect of the trip, from the booking, all the way through to the accommodation, transfers, and activities.

Utterly perfect The overall experience exceeded our expectations and was a truly wonderful experience.

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The husky sled transfer from the airport was amazing. Every trip we did had helpful, happy and informative staff.We got to meet a farmer and his family and get a sense of what life is like for them. I was sorry to leave and want to come back. Alan, United Kingdom Majestic Highlights of Norway, July 2016 Despite the weather this was a thoroughly enjoyable holiday. Many thanks to Petra for her excellent organisation and responding quickly to our specific requirements.

Michael, United States South and West in Detail, July 2016 Difficult to pick out one thing, as everything was flawless. The hotels were excellent, the car rental was very smooth. The trip planner was very well prepared and the confirmation tickets (which I actually didn't need most of the time as the hotels and drivers expected us) were excellent.

Meals were uniformly good. Can't think of anything else to say. One of the best, most organized and carefree vacations we have taken. Now if you could organize my life as well as you organized our vacation. Maria, United Kingdom Pearls of the South and West, July 2016 Even though we did not have the opportunity to meet with Helga in person we felt extremely well looked after by all her hard work and planning before and during the trip, and would completely recommend her and the Nordic Visitor team, you are all wonderful.

Kathleen, United States Marvels of the South, June 2016 Nordic Visitor exceeded our expectations. Our travel agent, Hilmar, was very responsive to our questions. The guides, maps, and personalized itinerary provided upon arriving was thorough and helped us to feel at ease in a new country.

We felt cared for at every step of the way. We did the Marvels of the South tour and it was amazing. I was a bit nervous about all the driving, but honestly, driving through Iceland is the best part.

The scenery is so dynamic and otherworldly. We ended up driving even more than the planned itinerary because there was so much to see and do. The rental car was comfortable and fuel efficient.

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The accommodations were always clean and the service at each stop was excellent. It was also nice to be able to eat breakfast at the hotel each morning before departing on our next journey.

S/PRST/2014/20 安全保障理事会議長声明 「イラクに関する状況」と

We hope to return to Iceland one day to see the northern lights. Jenny and Ray South Iceland at Leisure, June 2016 We had an amazing time thanks and your service really helped, so thank you very much. It really was a holiday of a lifetime for the whole family and we are still buzzing from it. We got to see so much, yet at the right pace for the children (10 and 8), so we could really enjoy lots of time to explore and play in natures best ever playground. Arnar really helped us too work out the perfect itinerary for our family's needs.

Thanks for sorting the sunshine too. The hotel accommodations were very nice and appreciated after a busy day. Our morning breakfast offerings were fabulous with a full range of offerings and quality preparation.

Cannot say enough about the railway experiences that provided us with such a great overview of the lands of Norway. The cruise tours were also exceptional both in the accommodations and experiences. Connections were made easy and we found no language barriers. It was a full week and I do recommend some "post tour" time in Norway before making the long trip home.

We had great support from Nordic Visitor as they were very responsive to our texted questions.

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Fiona, Australia Highlights of Scandinavia by car, June 2016 We travelled as a family of two adults and one child and organised our combined tours 'Tale of Four cities' Scandinavian capitals and 'Iceland Full Circle' from afar totally online.

Rita, Canada The Natural Wonders of Iceland, June 2016 Iceland was a very special trip for me. I had been wanting to go to Iceland since 1970.

Our Nordic tour was excellent and highlighted the natural wonders that I wanted to see, but I did not want to do all the driving.

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